sexta-feira, 1 de julho de 2011

Porque os EUA são tão ricos?

Um marxista ou um desenvolvimentista responderiam prontamente: porque eles exploraram exaustivamente outros países e hoje utilizam seu poderio político/econômico/militar para continuar impondo seus interesses ao mundo.
Um economista de doutrina utilitarista, mais esperto que seus amigos de esquerda, responderia algo como: pq eles sempre tiveram instituições sólidas que protegiam a propriedade privada e adotaram o livre mercado como polític econômica.

Vejam o trecho abaixo, retirado do livro de macroeconomia do Mankiw, e tirem suas próprias conclusões:

Alexander Hamilton Versus Time Inconsistency

Time inconsistency has long been a problem associated with discretionary policy. In fact, it was one of the first problems that confronted Alexander Hamilton when President George Washington appointed him the first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury in 1789. Hamilton faced the question of how to deal with the debts that the new nation had accumulated as it fought for its independence from Britain.When the revolutionary government incurred the debts, it promised to honor them when the war was over.But after the war,many Americans advocated defaulting on the debt because repaying the creditors would require taxation, which is always costly and unpopular.
Hamilton opposed the time-inconsistency policy of repudiating the debt. He knew that the nation would likely need to borrow again sometime in the future. In his First Report on the Public Credit,which he presented to Congress in 1790, he wrote
"If the maintenance of public credit, then, be truly so important, the next inquiry which suggests itself is: By what means is it to be effected? The ready answer to which question is, by good faith; by a punctual performance of contracts. States, like individuals, who observe their engagements are respected and trusted, while the reverse is the fate of those who pursue an opposite conduct."
Thus,Hamilton proposed that the nation make a commitment to the policy rule of honoring its debts. The policy rule that Hamilton originally proposed has continued for more than two centuries. Today, unlike in Hamilton’ s time, when Congress debates spending riorities, no one seriously proposes defaulting on the public debt as a way to reduce taxes. In the case of public debt, everyone now agrees that the government should be committed to a fixed policy rule.


É impressionante alguém naquela época tamanho entendimento sobre o papel do Estado na economia. Se tivessemos mais de governantes assim e menos de Dilma, Mantega e José Dirceu, estariamos em muito melhor situação.

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